In my role as a quality engineer supporting product design and development at various medical device manufacturers I got practical experience with each company’s design and development process. As a matter of regulation, each medical device manufacturer has procedures that control the design of their products. Unfortunately, they are not particularly useful.
I’ve observed that the Quality function at these companies develops and deploys all the procedures that the Quality System regulations require. However, professionals in the Quality function typically don’t have the subject matter expertise in a particular function such as product design and development or manufacturing to develop usable procedures for that function.
Here I share an example product design and development procedure typical of those I have seen deployed:
This type of process, laid out in the order of the text of the regulation, would suggest that product design and development is a sequence of steps executed in series.
At first glance it seems logical and sensible. First you catalog the user needs. Next you convert those user needs into design inputs (i.e. engineering requirements.) You then transform the design inputs through the design process into design outputs (i.e. drawings or prototypes.) Those design outputs are then verified (i.e. inspected and tested) against the design inputs. After that the design is validated by the user in the actual or simulated use environment. And finally, the design is transferred to manufacturing for mass production.
It wrongly suggests, albeit implicitly, that these steps also represent phases of design and development where a review is conducted after each block, and that a single traceability matrix, with columns corresponding to each block, is enough to capture the activity of the total design effort.
I have tried to figure out how this would work for a design involving multiple components that are assembled together, but I cannot find a way. This type of design for the product design and development process is fatally flawed as it doesn’t model the real nature of products which is often components/systems embedded within systems. Trying to map the total design effort into this format is like trying to fit a square peg in a round hole, an impossible and ultimately frustrating exercise.
Just because language is linear, in that ideas are expressed one after the other as the regulation does, doesn’t mean that the process being described is linear, too. In fact, the design and development process is most certainly not linear. It is deeply iterative with iterations built within iterations!
The FDA’s “Design Control Guidance for Medical Device Manufacturers” provides an explanation of the iterative nature of the design and development process. The guidance includes a simplified process flow chart, but it does not adequately communicate the complexity that makes up the actual design and development process. The guidance even explicitly says so.
In practice, feedback paths would be required between each phase of the process and previous phases, representing the iterative nature of product development. However, this detail has been omitted from the figure…
The language of the guidance in the above paragraph unfortunately implies that each block of the waterfall design process is a phase. It clarifies this further on where it says:
When the design input has been reviewed and the design input requirements are determined to be acceptable, an iterative process of translating those requirements into a device design begins. The first step is conversion of the requirements into system or high-level specifications. Thus, these specifications are a design output. Upon verification that the high-level specifications conform to the design input requirements, they become the design input for the next step in the design process, and so on.
This basic technique is used throughout the design process. Each design input is converted into a new design output; each output is verified as conforming to its input; and it then becomes the design input for another step in the design process. In this manner, the design input requirements are translated into a device design conforming to those requirements.
While the regulation does not prescribe a method for designing and developing a product, the guidance does point in a particular direction. The best representation I could find that captures the direction in the guidance is this graphic adapted from “The House of Quality” by John Hauser and Don Clausing:
The first “house” shows the “conversion of the requirements [Customer attributes] into system or high-level specifications [Engineering characteristics]”. The body of the house allows for the verification that “high-level specifications conform to the design input requirements”. The engineering characteristics then “become the design input for the next step in the design process, and so on.”
It’s obvious from the linked houses and the guidance that verification is not a one time or single type of activity. It is performed at each step of the design and development process wherever inputs are converted to outputs. Implicit in this point is that the type of verification is unique to the particular step or phase of the design and development process.
Each house may be thought of as a phase of the design and development process. The houses offer natural breaks. The design process of the next phase, converting inputs into outputs, depends on the successful completion of the previous phase, so it is nearly impossible to move too far down the process as gaps will be immediately apparent!
Each house can be considered its own traceability matrix where every design output is tied to one or more design inputs. And because the houses are all linked to one another it is possible to trace an attribute of the manufactured product all the way back to the customer need it helps address.
While they may not have a firm conceptual understanding of the design and development process, and thus cannot explain it, I believe most engineers have an instinctual feel for it in practice. But a poorly designed design and development process creates unnecessary and insoluble problems for project teams. The teams I’ve been on have responded to such hurdles by running two parallel processes: one that is the practical design and development effort, and the other is the documentation effort—a hidden factory. I don’t think it’s possible to calculate the cost of such waste.
 21 CFR Part 820.30 (a) https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=a018454b01dab73d0d1cef9f95be36a9&mc=true&node=pt21.8.820&rgn=div5#se21.8.820_130 Retrieved 2017-07-05
 QSR Required Procedures https://shrikale.wordpress.com/2017/05/18/qsr-required-procedures/ Retrieved 2017-07-05
 Design Control Guidance For Medical Device Manufacturers https://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm070627.htm Retrieved 2017-07-05
 The House of Quality. Harvard Business Review, pages 63-77, Vol 66 No 3, May 1988.
 Product Design and Development, 5th Edition. McGraw Hill, 2016.