Tag Archives: measurement

On Variation and Some of its Sources

Diversity

Virtually every component is made to be assembled with its counterpart(s) into sub-assemblies and final assemblies.

If individual pieces of a given component could be made identical to one another, then they would either all conform or all fail to conform to the component’s design requirements. If they conform, then we could pick a piece at random for use in a sub- or final-assembly. It would fit and function without fail, as intended.

But material varies, machine operation varies, the work method varies, workers vary, measurement varies, as does the environment. Such variation, especially in combination, makes it impossible to produce anything identical. Variation is a fundamental principle of nature. All things vary.

Variation affects the fit, the form and the function of a component. And, it is propagated along the assembly line such that the final product is at times a mixed bag of conforming and nonconforming widgets.

Material Consider 316 Stainless Steel. It is used to make medical devices. Manufacturers buy it from metal producers in sheet stock or bar stock.

If we measured the dimensional attributes of the received stock, e.g. its diameter or length, for several different purchase orders, we would see that they were not identical between orders. They vary. If we measured these attributes for pieces received in a single order, we would see that they were not identical between pieces of that order either. If we measured these attributes for a single piece at different points in its cross-section, we would see that they, too, were not identical. If we then zoomed in to investigate the crystalline structure of the stainless steel, we would see that the crystals were not identical in shape or size.

The elemental composition, in percent by weight, of 316 Stainless Steel is: 0.08% Carbon, 2.00% Manganese, 0.75% Silicon, 16.00-18.00% Chromium, 10.00-14.00% Nickel, 2.00-3.00% Molybdenum, 0.045% Phosphorous, 0.030% Sulfur, 0.10% Nitrogen, and the balance is Iron. We see that the amount of Chromium, Nickel, Molybdenum and Iron are specified as ranges i.e. they are expected to vary within them by design!

These are some of the ways a specific raw material used in the production of medical devices varies. Keep in mind that a medical device isn’t a single component but an assembly of several components likely made of different materials that will vary in just such ways as well. All this variation affects the processing (i.e. machining, cleaning, passivation, etc.) of the material during manufacturing, as well as the device performance in use.

Machine One piece of equipment used in the production of medical device components is the CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machine. Its condition, as with all production equipment, varies with use.

Take the quality of the lubricating fluid: it changes properties (e.g. its viscosity) with temperature thus affecting its effectiveness. The sharpness of the cutting tool deteriorates with use. A component made with a brand new cutting tool will not be identical to one made from a used cutting tool whose cutting edges have dulled. The cutting is also affected by both the feed-rate and the rotation-rate of the cutting tool. Neither of which remain perfectly constant at a particular setting.

What’s more, no two machines perform in identical ways even when they are the same make and model made by the same manufacturer. In use, they will almost never be in the same state as each other, with one being used more or less than the other, and consumables like cutting tools in different states of wear. Such variability will contribute to the variability between the individual pieces of the component.

Method Unless there is standardized work, we would all do the work in the best way we know how. Each worker will have a best way slightly different from another. Variation in best ways will find its way into the pieces made using them.

These days a production tool like a CNC machine offers customized operation. The user can specify the settings for a large number of operating parameters. Users write “code” or develop a “recipe” that specifies the settings for various operating parameters in order to make a particular component. If several such pieces of code or recipes exist, one different from another, and they are used to make a particular component, they will produce pieces of that component that vary from one to another.

When and how an adjustment is made to control parameters of a tool will affect the degree of variation between one piece and another. Consider the method where a worker makes adjustment(s) after each piece is made to account for its deviation from the target versus one where a worker makes an adjustment only when a process shift is detected. Dr. Deming and Dr. Wheeler have shown that tampering with a stable process, as the first worker does, will serve to increase the variation in the process.

All such variation in method will introduce variability into the manufactured pieces.

Man There are a great many ways in which humans vary physically from one another. Some workers are men, others are women. Some are short, others are tall. Some are young, others are older. Some have short fat fingers, others have long thin fingers. Some have great eyesight, others need vision correction. Some have great hearing, others need hearing aids. Some are right handed, others are left handed. Some are strong, others not so much. Some have great hand-eye coordination, others do not. We all come from diverse ethnic backgrounds.

Not all workers have identical knowledge. Some have multiple degrees, others are high school graduates. Some have long experience doing a job, others are fresh out of school. Some have strong knowledge in a particular subject, others do not. Some have deep experience in a single task, others have shallow experience. Some have broad experience, others have focused experience.

Last, but not least, we all bring varying mindsets to work. Some may be intrinsically motivated, others need to be motivated externally. Some may be optimists, others may be pessimists. Some want to get better everyday, others are happy where they are. Some like change, others resist it. Some are data driven, others use their instinct.

All this variation affects the way a job gets done. The variation is propagated into the work and ultimately manifests itself in the variation of the manufactured component.

Measurement We consider a measured value as fact, immutable. But that’s not true. Measuring the same attribute repeatedly does not produce identical results between measurements.

Just like production tools, measurement tools wear from use. This affects the measurement made with it over the course of its use.

And also just like production tools, the method (e.g. how a part is oriented, where on the part the measurement is made, etc.) used to make a measurement affects the measured value. There is no true value of any measured attribute. Different measurement methods produce different measurements of the same attribute.

So even if by chance two pieces were made identical we wouldn’t be able to tell because of the variability inherent in the measurement process.

Environment Certain environmental factors affect all operations regardless of industry. One of them is time. It is not identical from one period to the next. Months in a year are not identical in duration. Seasons in a year are different from one another. Daytime and nighttime are not identical to one another. Weekdays and weekends are not identical to one another.

Even in a climate controlled facility the temperature cycles periodically around a target. It varies between locations as well. Lighting changes over the course of the day. Certain parts of the workplace may be darker than others. Noise, too, changes over the course of the day: quiet early in the morning or into the night, and noisier later into the day. There is variation in the type of noise, as well. Vibration by definition is variation. It can come from a heavy truck rolling down the street or the motor spinning the cutting tool in a production machine. Air movement or circulation isn’t the same under a vent as compared to a spot away from a vent, or when the system is on versus when it is off.

The 5M+E (Material, Machine, Method, Man, Measurement, and Environment) is just one way to categorize sources of variation. The examples in each are just a few of the different sources of variation that can affect the quality of individual pieces of a component. While we cannot eliminate variation, it is possible to systematically reduce it and achieve greater and greater uniformity in the output of a process. The objective of a business is to match the Voice of the Customer (VOC) and the Voice of the Process (VOP). The modern day world-class definition of quality is run-to-target with minimal variation!

Our approach has been to investigate one by one the causes of various “unnecessaries” in manufacturing operations…
— Taiichi Ohno describing the development of the Toyota Production System

Links
[1] Kume, Hitoshi. Statistical Methods for Quality Improvement. Tokyo, Japan: The Association for Overseas Technical Scholarship. 2000. Print. ISBN 4-906224-34-2

[2] Monden, Yasuhiro. Toyota Production System. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press. 1983. Print. ISBN 0-89806-034-6

[3] Wheeler, Donald J. and David S. Chambers. Understanding Statistical Process Control. Knoxville, TN: SPC Press, Inc. 1986. Print. ISBN 0-945320-01-9

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Whose Measurement is Right?

Every company I’ve worked for inspects the product it receives from its suppliers to determine conformance to requirements. The process is variously referred to as incoming inspection or receiving inspection.

Sometimes the receiving inspection process identifies a lot of product that fails to conform to requirements. That lot is subsequently classified as nonconforming material and quarantined for further review. There are many reasons why a lot of product may be classified as nonconforming. Here I wish to focus just on reasons having to do with measurement.

Once a company discovers nonconforming parts, it usually contacts its supplier to share that information. It is not unusual, however, for the supplier to push back when their data for the lot of product shows it to be conforming. So, how can a given lot of product be both conforming and nonconforming? Who is right?

We need to recognize that measurement is a process. The measured value is an outcome of this process. It depends on the measurement tool used, the skill of the person making the measurement and the steps of the measurement operation. A difference in any of these factors will show up as a difference in the measured value.

It is rare that a measurement process is the same between a customer and its supplier. A customer may use different measurement tools than its supplier. For example, where the customer might have used a caliper or micrometer, the supplier may have used an optical comparator or CMM. Even if both the customer and the supplier use the same measurement tool, the workers using that tool are unlikely to have been trained in its use in the same way. Finally, the steps used to make the measurement, such as fixturing, lighting and handling the part, which often depend on the measurement tool used, will likely be different, too.

Thus, more often than not, a measurement process between a supplier and a customer will be different. Each measured value is correct in its context—the supplier’s measurement is correct in its context, as is the customer’s measurement in its context. But because the measurement process is different between the two contexts, the measured values cannot be compared directly with one another. So it is possible that the same lot of product may be conforming per the supplier’s measurements and nonconforming per the customer’s measurements.

But why are we measuring product twice: once by the supplier and again by the customer? Measurement is a costly non-value adding operation, and doing it twice is excess processing–wasteful. One reason I’ve been told is this is done to confirm the data provided by the supplier. But confirmation is possible only if the measurement process used by the customer matches the one used by the supplier.

Besides, if we are worried about the quality of supplier data, we should then focus efforts on deeply understanding their measurement process, monitoring its stability and capability, and working with the supplier to improve it if necessary. With that we should trust the measurement data the supplier provides and base our decisions on it, and eliminate the duplicate measurement step during receiving inspection.

Links
[1] Eliminate Waste in Incoming Inspection: 10 ideas of where to look for waste in your process http://www.qualitymag.com/articles/92832-eliminate-waste-in-incoming-inspection Retrieved 2017-06-29